Column foundation. It is used in fluffy deep -freeing soils, usually during the construction of light buildings: frame, wooden houses. In places of increased load of the house (corners, intersections of walls and partitions), pillars are erected at a distance of about 1.5-2.5 m. Pillars can be either brickwork or reinforced concrete. A reinforced concrete beam is laid on top or the structure is poured with reinforced concrete. The main advantage of this design is low cost, low labor intensity. Restriction — applies only on fixed soils.
Plaet foundation. It is usually built on problem soils with high groundwater. Is a rigid monolithic structure that moves with the house. It is made of reinforced concrete. Advantages: simplicity, reliability, stability. Disadvantages: High cost due to a large amount of necessary concrete and metal.
Ribbon foundation. They are placed under the walls around the perimeter of the house under construction, for all the internal walls, as well as during the construction of a garage, basement and basement floor. Distinguish monolithic (poured with concrete) and prefabricated (put ready -made reinforced concrete blocks) foundation. Advantages: reliability, strength, simple technology. Disadvantage: high labor intensity (a large amount of excavation), a large consumption of materials, a large amount of time for work.
Pile foundation — a more complex construction technology. Apply with a large load from the walls of the building on the supporting layers of soil (in multi -storey construction). Use piles with pointed ends, which are either screwed or driven into the ground. The piles use various: wooden, reinforced concrete, concrete. Their strength, reliability, durability, as well as the cost of work, the cost of piles are not high depends on their material, is not large.
Piles are usually not used in one -story construction, since this foundation is laborious and expensive. Advantages: it is possible to use in soils with a low bearing capacity. Disadvantage: expensive work due to the need to use special equipment.